FLY WITH THE HEART NOT WITH THE WIND: Scope of Veterinary Science Subjects
Updated: Oct 24, 2020
This article is a masterwork by Dr. Vaidehi from NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh, with a lot of efforts and continuous guidance from VETAMIT team. We will be continuously updating the page for recent highlights and also welcome many more suggestions and queries that would be best answered by the professionals themselves.
Every year thousands of students appear for ICAR-AIEEA PG entrance exam and various other state-level PG entrance examinations to land in their dream subject in their dream college. If preparation is a one-level struggle, choosing the right subject for a bright future is the pressure at next level. With so much confusion we opt for a subject in which we are doubtful of even the alphabets. Since it is a known fact that not everyone would be lucky enough to have secured a rank that satisfies both the wishes of college and subject, it is always better to prioritize our next options. Hence, let us analyze what are the different opportunities in each subject before landing into one without any further idea. Before going into the details we would like to provide information on different other Indian institutes which provide a masters degree for veterinary undergraduate students with BVSc.& AH eligibility.
Now, let us have an idea on career opportunities in different veterinary science subjects where there exists great popularity among young aspiring veterinarians from all over India. We would like to provide a broad insight into these subjects other than the traditional known scopes like Veterinary Officer, Assistant Professor, Agricultural Research Scientist, and KVK Subject Matter Specialist. Before that have a look at "Career options for BVSc. Graduates by Dr. Ajit Y, Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Uttarpradesh" and "Veterinary profession : Career and Goals by Jaita Biswas, MVSc. student, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Uttarpradesh".
Veterinary science subjects as categorized by ICAR AIEEA include:
• Veterinary Anatomy
• Veterinary Surgery
• Veterinary Gynecology and obstetrics
• Veterinary Microbiology
• Veterinary Medicine
• Veterinary Pharmacology
• Veterinary Parasitology
• Veterinary Pathology
• Veterinary Public Health
Veterinary Anatomy is a subject that chills the spine of even a top ranker. The reason could be the terror it generates for ages. But it is a very basic and interesting subject which introduces us into the world of veterinary. It deals with the form and structure of the animal body and its parts through different branches like gross anatomy, topographic anatomy, systematic anatomy, developmental anatomy, histology, cytology, and embryology. Scope of career opportunities in veterinary anatomy in academics and research are as wide as any other subject.
One can always become an assistant professor in any of the Indian universities if a PhD is completed in this subject according to the revised guidelines. One can opt for a career in histology laboratories, embryo development laboratories, and meat inspection units. Someone interested in mastering the diagnostic imaging techniques, anatomy is one of the best options. Chances of becoming a lab animal scientist in pharmacy companies, Research & Development institutes, Contract Research Organizations, biotechnology companies if one master in the histological techniques like section cutting, staining and slide reading, embryo sectioning, bone regeneration studies, learning instrumentation used in biochemical and microbiological techniques are always an added advantage. One can always become the best surgeon if he is thorough with the anatomy of the animal body. Lab animal studies and research in the same seem to be having a high scope in the near future to the ones who opt for this subject.
(Guided by Dr. P V S Kishore, Professor and Head, Department of Veterinary Anatomy, NTR College of Veterinary Science, SVVU, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh)
Veterinary Surgery is one of the most anticipated and highly considered branches of veterinary by young enthusiastic graduates who wish to portray themselves as renowned surgeons. This subject stresses hands-on practice while treating the animals and help to relieve their pain through manual procedures and surgeries. It has a wide array of opportunities in academics as assistant professors, in research arena to add new techniques or procedures to the literature, earning name and fame by setting our own private pet clinics and in service-oriented areas like Animal Birth Control centres. Even in the field veterinary conditions, it is the successful veterinary surgeons who gain the trust of the farmers so soon. So, students who wish to go for field-level jobs as Veterinary Assistant Surgeon or Veterinary Officer, mastering in this subject helps a lot.
(Guided by Vetvisit youtube channel video "Scope and importance of Veterinary Surgery with Dr. M Sreenu, Professor and Head, Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, NTR College of Veterinary Science, SVVU, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh")
Veterinary Medicine is a subject that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Clinical Veterinary Medicine deals with restoring the health of an unhealthy animal (bedside medicine). Preventive veterinary medicine is it’s another branch that deals with the prevention of diseases, promoting and prolonging the health of animals.The successful PG students can choose a diverse path as researchers in research institutions like Indian Veterinary Research Institute or purely master in clinical the practice which has many more opportunities in lab animal research institutes, pharmaceutical industries, animal farms, academicians etc. Even in Indian Council of Medical Research, Council Of Scientific & Industrial Research, or any other biomedical research institutes veterinary medicine students are preferred along with other streams like pharmacology, pathology etc. As per Veterinary Council of India regulations, minimum veterinary medicine faculty in an institute is five in the Veterinary Medicine Department (VMD), two in Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (TVCC) and one in Livestock Farm Complex (LFC) which shows that there will be any lack of assistant professor jobs in the near future.
(Guided by Dr. Ajit Y, Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Uttarpradesh)
Veterinary Gynecology is a branch of reproductive physiology and medicine that deals specifically with the reproductive issues in female animals. Another branch called Veterinary Obstetrics specializes in identifying, rectifying and treating female abnormal conditions before, during, and after parturition. Another important sub-branch called Veterinary Andrology deals with the study, research, and genetic improvement of the male animals as it is a known fact that “Sire is half the herd”. Recent advancements in the animal genetics, embryological biotechnology, semen abnormalities, etc., give a wide scope of opportunities for these subject specialists in academics as assistant professors in the department, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (TVCC), Livestock Farm Complex (LFC), animal research stations, breeding farms, semen stations, semen banks, embryo transfer technology institutes, laboratory animal breeding farms, in different national projects that stress improving animal population. With two or three years experience in practicing this subject with masters in it has huge opportunities in gulf countries particularly. As scientist B, C, and D in Indian organizations like Indian Council of Medical Research and Council of Scientific & Industrial Research where reproductive biotechnology is the base of the research.
Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, closely related, were involved in developing the new compound, particularly new antimicrobials and anti-parasitics to control infectious diseases, and analgesic or non-steroidal anti-inflammator drugs affecting different animal species. The inter and intra-species differences as well the variability within and across animal populations are the essence of veterinary pharmacology and toxicology which requires a hardcore passion to deal with all aspects of drugs starting from listing out their sources, drug development, physical and chemical properties, biochemical and physiological effects, mechanism of action, absorption, distribution, biotransformation, excretion, therapeutic and other uses, and their adverse effects. Toxicology branch deals with toxicological aspects of different drug components. With the gaining importance on toxicological studies in recent years, there was a wide scope for the one who masters in toxicology branch of Veterinary Pharmacology. Any national institute where experiments are carried out on small animals and a small animal laboratory is established like AYUSH, there is a definite scope for students of this stream. They have wide opportunity in Food and Drug Administration agency, Environmental Protection agencies, Various opportunities in this subject are :
Academia - Researchers/scientists, lecturers in toxicology, biology, or chemistry departments, as research associates, laboratory technicians, as assistant professors in veterinary universities.
Industry (pharma, biotech) - R&D scientists, clinical research, drug discovery, drug testing, pharmacy vigilance/ drug safety, clinical trial monitors, pharmaceutical marketings and information specialists.
Government - forensic toxicologists, analytical toxicologists, risk assessment, veterinary officer, drug safety monitoring, drug/ toxicant information specialists, environmental toxicologists, clinical toxicologists, occupational toxicologists.
(Guided by Dr. Anjali, MVSc. Student, Department of Veterinary pharmacology and toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Uttarpradesh)
Veterinary Parasitology is a subject with a lot of scope with the increasing concern over the spread of dreadful vector-borne diseases, undefined life cycles of new emerging diseases, lack of research on different intermediate hosts, and continuing studies on parasites affecting animals. It diversifies into Veterinary Helminthology, Protozoology, Entomology & Acarology, Malacology, Parasitic Zoonoses, Immunoparasitology, Clinical Parasitology, Parasites of Zoo & wild animals & different Parasitological Techniques. One can opt for further specialization by doing a PhD by taking any of the above-mentioned topics.It is a subject of veterinary science that deals with anatomy and physiology of disease-carrying parasites, their hosts, mode of transmission, their development, impact, their detection and control. Its branch, Veterinary Entomology is going to have a cut through opportunities and scope in the near future. There are a lot of opportunities available for a post-graduate and a post-doctoral in various sectors like animal disease diagnostic laboratories, vaccine research centres, as wildlife or zoo veterinarian, private-sector jobs in labs, poultry sector, abattoirs, animal feed processing units, dairy sector, pet clinics etc.
(Guided by Dr. P Srinivas, Kolkata Veterinary University, West Bengal and Dr. Jaita Biswas, IVRI, Uttarpradesh, both from Department of Veterinary parasitology)
Veterinary Microbiology is an all-time favourite subject which has a multifaceted approach and links other subjects like veterinary public health, veterinary pathology, veterinary medicine etc., where there will be a repetition of studying diseases, their causative, clinical findings, diagnosis and differential diagnosis. It itself branches into veterinary bacteriology, veterinary virology, veterinary mycology and veterinary immunology broadening the area of interest to the one opting. It has varied opportunities in
• academics as assistant professors or as an all-time researcher
• vaccine production centers
• laboratories as diagnostic or food and drug inspectors
• in meat industries as meat inspectors
(Guided by Dr. Sai Charan, MVSc. student, Department of Veterinary Virology,
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Uttarakhand)
Veterinary Pathology is a practice of medicine which masters us in etiology, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, clinical pathology findings, postmortem findings, anatomical pathology, histopathology findings, of all the diseases in different age group of animals. Studies range from live animals to specific proteins involved in diseases with stress on clinical findings like body fluids and cells, anatomical findings like necropsies and surgical biopsies. It has varied opportunities at the state and central levels like diagnostic laboratories, as assistant professors, as research scientists in different ICAR institutions, private diagnostic laboratories of different companies dealing with poultry, pharmaceuticals, immunologicals, vaccine production centres, and etc. where clinical trials are conducted, like a zoo veterinarian if mastered in post mortem findings of wild animals, and even abroad, this subject has a vast importance when it comes to biomedical research or animal research.Different links are given below which gives more information regarding the subject specified.
Veterinary Public Health is a subject that unites veterinary with human health. Students, who wish to shift to a career that can be dealt with zoonotic diseases, environmental issues,microbiological quality of food and its products, risk analysis, antimicrobial resistance, drug resistance, epidemiological studies of zoonotic diseases etc., can choose a path in this subject. It is the devotion of professional veterinary skills, knowledge and resources for the improvement of human health. This subject gives a broad scope at both national and international levels. Various known opportunities in this area are:
Different government departments like the Department of agriculture, natural resources, public health etc. provide a great arena for this subject, different government agencies like Centre for Epidemiology and Animal Health, Center of Disease Control, National Institute of Health, Food Safety and Standards Authority
Various private food processing companies, pharmaceutical companies, animal food processing companies, meat inspection units are always in need of veterinary public health enthusiasts. The raising voice over the “ONE HEALTH CONCEPT” which stresses upon attaining the optimal health for humans, animals and to our environment is thus creating vast opportunities for this sect of veterinarians locally, nationally, and globally.
OTHER USEFUL LINKS
Centre of Disease Control (CDC)
ONE HEALTH CONCEPT
Atlast what we would like to conclude that, it is not the subject we choose that decides our success in the future, it is the passion and dedication to master in one particular thing that remains somewhere in our subconscious mind since our under-graduation. The desire that drives us in that path whatever subject we may take to learn and master in that particular area is important. Try mastering in one thing either small or big like environment or epidemiology in Veterinary Public Health, different staining procedures in Veterinary Pathology, embryological studies in case of Veterinary Anatomy and so on. Then, after a few years if that one thing surfaces out, our name would never miss the list of outstanding performances.
To read about the scope in animal science subjects read our part 2
Dr. Vaidehi Pasumarthi
NTR College of Veterinary Science,
Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh
Dr. Hemalatha Talluri
Dr. Amit Kumar Tripathy